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Affiliated Network for Social Accountability in East Asia and the Pacific (ANSA-EAP)
Affiliated Network for Social Accountability South Asia Region (ANSA-SAR)
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Themes > Education
Across the globe, governments invest in education in order to reduce social inequality and to raise and sustain national economic development that is globally competitive. A key aim is to generate improved educational opportunities for people who are disadvantaged on the basis of gender, social class, language, ethnicity, rural location, disability or conflict. Raising social equality through education implies providing access to education of acceptable quality that facilitates a reasonable quality of life for all citizens. Simultaneously, all children of schoolgoing age must be exposed to a curriculum that equips them with knowledges, skills and capacity to continuously learn through their lives so that they can live healthily and enjoy productive working careers.

Education policy does not automatically translate into the desired effects. A variety of intervening factors can constrain implementation, causing education – or lack of access to education - to have the effect of widening disparities and weakening social and economic inclusion. In a number of developing countries there are school systems with low completion rates and large numbers of school-age children ‘out of school’. As a response to this situation, Millenium Development Goal Target 3 is to “Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.”

Therefore, education is a critical social accountability issue. In particular, public provision of education is viewed as an indicator of both the accountability of government and the capacity of government to see to the educational needs of its citizens. ANSA-Africa can concretely and constructively address a number of key aspects of education provision at the national, regional and local levels such as: education expenditure patterns, access to schooling, education efficiency, and educational quality.

Public expenditure tracking of secondary education bursary scheme in Kenya
Lineth N Oyugi, November 2010

The secondary schools bursary scheme was introduced by the Government in the 1993/1994 financial year to enhance access, ensure retention and reduce disparities and inequalities in the provision of secondary school education.

Annual Learning Assessment Report Uganda 2010: Are Our Children Learning?

Since 1997, the Government of Uganda has implemented the Universal Primary Education Policy. This followed closely the promulgation of a Constitution in 1995 that established education as a right for all. These reforms were also in consonance with the global education reforms as espoused in the 1990?

Ghana report: Africa Education Watch
October 2010

The Ghana Integrity Initiative,has launched the Africa Education Watch (AEW) project report on Ghana. The report focused on three municipalities and three districts in the Upper East, Greater Accra and Ashanti regions. The report found that the areas lacked basic school infrastructure like classrooms,?

Effective Delivery of Public Services: Focus on Education
Prof. T B Wereko and Prof. Cletus Dordunoo, October 2010

Ghana's progress in improving delivery of public services, including education, has been consistent with its achievements in consolidating democracy and respect for the rule of law since the restoration of civilian rule in 1992.

Classroom Observation Study: A Report on the Quality and Learning in Primary Schools in Kenya
Moses Ngware, Moses Oketch, Maurice Mutisya, Benta Abuya, 2010

Anecdotal evidence indicates that there is growing interest and concern about what actually happens in the classrooms since the Government of Kenya successfully implemented the Free Primary Education (FPE) policy in 2003. Teachers may be well-trained and yet effective learning still fails to take?

Annual Learning Assessment Report Tanzania 2010: Are Our Children Learning?

Across Tanzania, huge progress has been made in basic education in the last decade. Enrolments are up in both primary and secondary education, and millions of children are able to go to school. Tanzania is ahead of schedule in meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) related to education access?

Where to for Provincial Education? Reviewing Provincial Education Budgets 2006 to 2012
Russell Wildeman and Rose Hemmer-Vitti, 2010

In the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2010, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) argues that, although some developed countries were beginning to show signs of economic recovery, many developing countries now have to deal with the aftershock?

Tracking Capitation Grant In Public Primary Schools In Ghana
Edward Ampratwum and Daniel Armah-attoh, June 2010

The abolition of school fees especially at the basic education level has been adopted by many countries as one of the key policy interventions for influencing education outcomes. In 2004, Ghana adopted a school fees abolition policy, the Capitation Grant (CG), to spur the attainment of universal access?

What Will It Take to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals?
June 2010

Based on a review of 50 country studies, this Assessment finds that the resources and know-how necessary to achieve the MDGs exist. Acceleration of progress over the next five years will need to focus on continuing proven strategies, policies and interventions and making a radical break with those?

DFID: Bilateral Support to Primary Education
18 June 2010

The Department for International Development has successfully supported developing countries in progress against goals of universal enrolment in primary education and improved educational prospects for girls, according to a report published today by the National Audit Office.

Tracking School Attendance Project
Kees de Graaf, 7 June 2010

Can mobile phones help bringing primary school teachers and pupils back into the classroom? Teachers absenteeism in Uganda is one of the highest in the world, with obvious implications for the quality of education. With absenteeism rates of 20% - 30% varying per districts, teacher absenteeism costs?

Using GPS to monitor school performance and accountability
4 June 2010

Manila: Efficient and effective operation of public school systems is a challenge for governments around the world. Many struggle to establish transparent performance monitoring systems that allow citizens to hold school officials and governments accountable for performance. The public school system?

Delivering Service Indicators in Education and Health in Africa: a proposal
Tessa Bold, Bernard Gauthier, Jakob Svensson and Waly Wane, 2010

Access to quality services – in particular in health and education – has been recognized as fundamental for wellbeing and economic development (World Bank, 2003). However, in Africa and other developing countries, service delivery is often poor or nonexistent: schools and health clinics are not open?

Annual Learning Assessment: Are Our Children Learning?
April 2010

Education is a priority area across East Africa and huge investments have been poured into the sector by governments, the donor community and parents. Recent years have seen school enrolment soar to an all time high. Every child is expected to attend school and acquire knowledge and abilities necessary?

Africa Education Watch: good governance lessons for primary education
February 2010

This report presents a regional overview of accountability and transparency in primary education management in seven African countries. It has been produced within the framework of Africa Education Watch (AEW). AEW is a threeyear programme (2007-2010) implemented by Transparency International (TI)?

Resources and outcomes in public schools: The case of South Africa
Russell Wildeman, 2010

After more than a decade and a half of reforms to the funding of South African public schools, concerns persist about the efficient use of resources in schools that do not perform well on standardised tests of achievement. There seems to be near universal consensus that further funding increases to?

Public expenditure tracking survey for primary and secondary education in mainland Tanzania
Jens Claussen and Mussa J Assad, 8 February 2010

Tanzania’s expansion in primary and secondary education over the past years has been impressive by all standards. However, the question is whether the expansion in education infrastructure and enrolment has been matched with a commensurate increase in resource allocation, that the resources have reached?

Kenya: Citizens’ statement in support of US Government withholding FPE funds
Bunge La Mwananchi, 28 January 2010

We the citizens of Kenya wish to issue this statement in support of the decision by the United States Government to withhold funds that had been earmarked towards Kenya’s Free Primary Education programme. As aggrieved citizens we agree and demand that those responsible for the misappropriation of?

2009 Regional Report Card
December 2009

Easily accessible and up-to-date statistical information for the Dan River Region regarding the regional and state-wide trends in educational quality, financial stability, economic vitality, health status, and civic capacity is provided in this report card. It is a tool for the widespread dissemination?

Africa: Higher education and development
Karen MacGregor, 11 October 2009

Several countries have linked higher education to economic development with great success, including Finland and South Korea. Africa, where an upcoming study of university systems across eight countries has unearthed contradictory notions of the role of the university, could draw on international?

GDN Working Paper Series - Education Expenditure and Outcome in Senegal
Aloysius Ajab AMIN and Tharcisse Ntilivamunda, September 2009

Senegal has about 12.4 million inhabitants of whom 42 percent live in urban areas and the population growth rate is 2.6 percent. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is produced by four main sectors of the economy as follows: - agriculture (19.8%); industry (23.5%); manufacturing (16.5%), and services?

Zambia: The impact of improved and predictable funding to vulnerable schools
22 June 2009

Since 2004, CARE Zambia has been working through a Program Partnership Agreement (PPA) with the UK Government's Department for International Development (DFID) to implement a number of Social Protection projects, aimed at increasing the capacity of institutions and the most vulnerable in society to?

A Budget Guide for Civil Society Organisations Working in Education
11 February 2009

Budgets can be complex documents. Many people feel intimidated by budget work, assuming that it requires very technical skills. The reality is that budget work can be straightforward. While some budgets are more sophisticated than others, the bottom line is usually simple. Using basic arithmetic,?

Achieving our goals and transforming our schools: Best Practices in the Malawi Teacher Training Activity
Nancy Kendall, 26 January 2009

This report presents the results of a study conducted in July 2007 to document the best practices and to analyze the lessons learned from key elements of the Malawi Teachers Training Activity (MTTA).. MTTA is a three-and-a-half year initiative funded from August 2004 to July 2008 by the United States?

Civil Society Engagement in Education Budgets: A report documenting Commonwealth Education Fund Experience

Why is Education Budget Work Important?

Over the last decade, budget work has grown enormously in popularity as a tool for holding government to account at all levels - from the national to the grassroots. The move to political and financial decentralisation in many?

Making the Budget Work for Education: Experiences, achievements and lessons from civil society budget work

In 2000, governments around the world committed themselves to improving human development in the areas of health, education and gender equality. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Education for All (EFA) goals were key targets set and committed to by governments to ensure that their citizens?

Public goods provision in South Asia
Lakshmi Iyer, 9 June 2008
Access to education and health facilities varies considerably across the countries and regions of South Asia. This paper surveys the theoretical and empirical literature on collective action and public goods provision. The role of group influence, heterogeneity within groups and group size is explored?
Governance, management, and accountability in secondary education in sub-saharan Africa

Education for All has led to a significant increase in the number of students completing primary education in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It has also created tremendous demand for secondary education.

Putting the power of transparency in context: Information's role in reducing corruption in Uganda's education sector
Paul Hubbard, December 2007
The promotion of transparency policies as anti-corruption tools is popular based on the intuitive logic that secrecy breeds corruption and sunlight is the best disinfectant. But the idea that information disclosure policies actually have strong anti-corruption effects in developing countries is supported?
Impact assessment, community involvement and the Pratham India Project
22 October 2007
Started in the slums of Mumbai in 1994, Pratham was created to augment the role of the government and the citizens in implementing and furthering universal primary education. The organization is based on a triangular partnership between government, the corporate sector and the citizens, and since inception,?
Trends in Human Development and Human Poverty in Namibia
Sebastian Levine, October 2007
This paper uses a capability approach to analyse current levels and recent trends in socioeconomic development and poverty in Namibia.
Exclusion, Gender and Education: Case studies from the developing world
Maureen Lewis and Marlaine Lockheed, 24 September 2007
No one disagrees that girls ought to go to school—for their own sake and because educating girls ensures a better future for their children and their societies. And in fact, in the last two decades girls' enrollment rates in developing countries, especially in primary schooling, have increased dramatically.?
Communique: The third ordinary session of the Conference of Ministers of Education of the African Union
10 August 2007
The third ordinary session of the Conference of Ministers of Education of the African Union (COMEDAF III) took place in Johannesburg, South Africa from 9 to 10 August 2007. The Ministers discussed the progress made in the implementation of the Plan of Action, with special reference to higher education,?
Job Creation versus Cash Transfers in Kenya
Eduardo Zepeda, August 2007
After a long period of economic regression, the Kenyan economy has recently started to recover, raising hopes for reducing poverty. Buoyed by this recovery, the Economic Recovery Strategy of the Kenyan Government has the ambitious goal of creating 500,000 jobs per year. But if these jobs are going to?
Realising rights for children - good practice in Eastern and Southern Africa
African Child Policy Forum, 12 July 2007
It has been seventeen years since the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), came into force internationally, enabling an opportunity for reflection on the impact and application of the convention so far.
Bayanihang eskwela: the citizens' monitoring of school building construction projects
Ateneo School of Government, 2007

What is Bayanihang Eskwela? In the context of serious governance problems that confront the Philippine society today, the Bayanihang Eskwela is an example of an initiative that illustrates how citizens’ involvement can be made part of the solution.

South Africa: Review of national and provincial education budgets 2007
Russell Wildeman, 28 June 2007
Transversal expenditure trends in provincial education budget 2007 do not deviate from previous years’ expenditure frameworks. Personnel expenditure is still on a tight leash and both recurrent and non-recurrent non-personnel expenditures are on the rise. However, allocations to capital expenditure in?
Policies on free primary and secondary education in East Africa: a review of the literature
Moses O. Oketch and Caine M. Rolleston, June 2007
Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda are among the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa which have recently implemented policies for free primary education, motivated in part by renewed democratic accountability following the re-emergence of multi-party politics in the 1990s. However, it is not the first time that?
Social Policy and the Quest for Inclusive Development: Research Findings from Sub-Saharan Africa
‘Jm O. Adsn, May 2007
This paper provides a reflective overview of the eight studies commissioned under the UNRISD project on Social Policy in Late Industrializers: Sub-Saharan Africa and the Challenge of Social Policy. The studies involved subregional and thematic social policy concerns. Within this framework, one study?
Confronting the contradictions: The IMF, wage bill caps and the case for teachers
April 2007
The case against the IMF on education

In the world’s poorest countries many children have gone without quality education for far too long, and as a result, the human capital that these countries need to grow and develop sustainably is still in desperately short supply. One reason is that?
Community participation for equity and quality in basic education in Guinea
April 2007
World Education began working in community participation in education in Guinea with the 1997 Community Education pilot programme in 1997 with funding from USAID.
Globalization and child labor: The cause can also be a cure
Prof. Susan Ariel Aaronson , 15 March 2007
Pressure of globalization has led to child trafficking and forced labor. Similar global pressure from public opinion can also put an end to the practice. Five years ago, reports emerged about small groups of children being trafficked and forced to pick cacao beans – the main ingredient for chocolate?
From ivory towers to poverty eradication: SARUA gets wings
7 February 2007
A new force for social change is set to take off in southern Africa. Dutch Government funding seems set to enable SARUA to deliver on its core objectives: to strengthen collaboration between universities in the SADC region and to establish higher education as a fulcrum for integrated regional development.?
Resources from the Global Campaign for Education
EFA Global Monitoring Report: Sub-Saharan Africa region
The Education For All Global Monitoring Report is mandated to offer a global review of progress towards achieving the EFA goals. Yet the picture will look different from a regional perspective, and within each region, according to national perspectives. Even within a single country there may be disparities?
Are you being served? Popular satisfaction with health and education services in Africa
Michael Bratton, January 2007
This article explores the determinants of public satisfaction (or dissatisfaction) with health and education services in Africa. Among prospective explanations, we consider the users’ poverty, their general perceptions of service accessibility, and their specific experiences with service providers. We?
Child participation in education initiatives: how-to guide
Carolyn W. Fanelli and Mildred Mushunje, 2007
This guide will show you the ways that some real-life organizations in Zimbabwe have made child participation happen.
Child Migration and the Construction of Vulnerability
Julia O’Connell Davidson, Caitlin Farrow, 2007
Migration and the policies introduced by national governments to manage and respond to it have profound implications for children’s rights in the contemporary world. Even though the general phenomenon of migration is very much at the centre of national and international policy concern, however, policy-makers?
Eternal (and internal) tensions? Conceptualising public accountability in South African higher education
Steven Friedman, Omano Edigheji, December 2006
An enquiry into the public accountability of higher education institutions in South Africa (or, indeed, in any society), requires us to pose several related questions. First, are South African higher education institutions accountable to the public in whose midst they operate? If so, of what does that?
Towards an African Regional Social Policy - Johannesburg draft
November 2006
Ministers and senior officers from 13 SADC-countries + UN-DESA met in Johannesburg 21-24 Nov, 2006 with an intention to contribute towards developing regional social policies for Africa. The Ministerial Declaration and Draft Strategy are going to be contributions towards a social dimension in SADC and?
Can information campaigns spark local participation and improve outcomes?
Abhijit Banerjee, Rukmini Banerji, Esther Duflo, Rachel Glennerster, Stuti Khemani, July 2006
There is a growing belief in development policy circles that participation by local communities in basic service delivery can promote development outcomes. A central plank of public policy for improving primary education services in India is the participation of Village Education Committees (VECs), consisting?
Rwanda citizen report and community score cards
February 2006
The CRC and CSC study was commissioned by the Ministry of Local Government, Good Governance, Community Development and Social Affairs. The aim was to gather data and information on a pilot scale regarding how citizens rate the quantity and quality of services delivered in the health and education sectors.?
South Africa: Access before quality, and what to do now?
Luis Crouch, Penny Vinjevold, 2006
This paper will argue that, even if this tradeoff between mass access and average quality exists as a potential, or as a tendency, the evidence seems to indicate that most countries actually deal with the tradeoff reasonably successfully. The reconciliation of access (or equity) and quality is a matter?
Making it happen: Political will for gender equality in education
December 2005
Why do some countries succeed in promoting gender parity and equality in education while others do not? The answer often given is ‘political will’. All too often, however, no further explanation is offered. There has been little effort to understand why governments are unwilling or unable to change their?
The millennium development goals in Africa: Progress and challenges
August 2005
The urgent need to address poverty around the world and the opportunity provided by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have made them the rallying cry of a global partnership and the cornerstone of international and regional development policy. For the first time in history, a diverse range of players?
Girls can’t wait: Why girls’ education matters, and how to make it happen now
8 March 2005
This is the year that the world will miss the first, and most critical of all the Millennium Development Goals – gender parity in education by 2005. Over the next decade, unless world leaders take drastic action now, unacceptably slow progress on girls’ education will account for over 10 million unnecessary?
'Scaling up’ good practices in girls’ education
This publication focuses on the key issues to address and strategies to put in place in order to meet international targets and national goals for universalizing girls’ access to, retention in and completion of quality education. The right of all children to education that is free from discrimination?
South Africa equity and quality reforms: possible lessons
Luis Crouch, 2005
In the period 1995 to 2002 South Africa managed to make major policy changes in education. Almost everything about the education sector has changed. This paper focuses on policies aimed at resource distribution. It documents significant improvements in certain measures of resource inequality. It documents?
Children’s educational completion rates and achievement: Implications for Ethiopia’s second Poverty Reduction strategy (2006-10)
Tassew Woldehanna, Nicola Jones, Bekele Tefera, 2005
The major development objectives of the Ethiopian Government are to reduce poverty and improve primary school enrolment and educational achievement (SDPRP, 2002). However, education performance indicators show that only access?related targets have been achieved, while educational quality declined?
Participatory strategic planning and pluriannual budgeting
30 June 2004
Implementation of The Participatory Strategic Planning and Pluriannual Budgeting Project started in 2001 to support the capacity of Moroccan municipalities to fulfill their responsibilities within Morocco’s new decentralization framework, with a focus on the municipalities’ roles in promoting local economic?
Rights, equality and education for all
‘Education for All’ means what it says. The international community has committed itself, in the Dakar Framework for Action, to having all eligible children attending fee-free primary schooling by 2015.
Sustainability, education and the management of change in the Tropics
13 May 2002
Session III in the international seminar series “Sustainability, Education and the Management of Change in the Tropics” (www.changetropics.org) took place from May 13-18, 2002, in Jinja, Uganda. A group of 60 international participants?
ANSA-Africa Thematic Areas
Food prices can't just be swept under the table
14 January 2011
The Guardian

Corruption fight dealt a blow
14 January 2011
The Nation

Rape is horrifyingly widespread in conflicts all around the world
14 January 2011
The Economist

The other side of the NMG's leaders' scorecard
14 January 2011
The New Times

Delivering good aid?
14 January 2011
Development Policy Blog

Ongeri, national school quotas is the wrong fix
13 January 2011
Daily Nation

Boost for Zimbabwe's education sector results in texts
13 January 2011

Don't chase pupils over fees
13 January 2011
Lusaka Times

Private schools: Demand outstrips supply
13 January 2011
The Citizen

Standard of science education dropping, educationists warn
13 January 2011

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